THE BOROUGH OF NAZARETH.

                       BY REV. EDWARD H. REICHEL.

  IN the year of Grace 1457, some of the religious followers of the staunch 
Bohemian martyr, John Huss (who was burnt at the stake on July 6th, 1417), 
formed themselves into a close church fellowship with like-minded believers 
from Moravia, and assumed the name of "The United Brethren." The 
descendants of these sorely tried professors of the Gospel, after having 
suffered the most intense persecutions, were scattered through the 
contiguous States of Central Europe, and finally almost entirely 
extirpated. A remnant was, however, preserved; and some three hundred years 
after the martyrdom of Huss-whom they considered the founder of their 
church-the Spirit of God brought about a great awakening among this 
remnant; and, in order to enjoy religious liberty and freedom of 
conscience-sacred principles, always upheld by their ancestors-they now 
threw off the shackles of oppression, by leaving their native lands, and 
escaping into the Kingdom of Saxony.  Here these hardy refugees found a 
kind welcome, and were soon permitted to begin a settlement on the estate 
of Count Zinzendorf in Upper Lusatia, where they founded Herrnhut in 1722.1 

  Five years later, a regular Church Government, was, established, and 
thence dates the birth of the Renewed Brethrens Church, whose members are 
now commonly styled "Moravians." Imbued with a genuine missionary spirit, 
their poster, Zinzendorf, who proved himself a worthy instrument in God's 
hand, used all his influence, political and religion, to further the spread 
of the gospel; and here were men ready and willing to leave home and 
friends, in order to carry the message of salvation to the uttermost parts 
of the earth.  It was in accordance with this movement that the first 
Moravians crossed the Atlantic in 1735, and landed at Savannah, in the 
Province of Georgia, there to engage in missionary labors among the negro 
slaves. Others followed, and some of these proceeded northward into 
Pennsylvania. 

  Here Whitefield, the great Methodist preacher, who had previously become 
acquainted with the Moravian Brethren, secured the services of some of them 
to erect a large building for a school for negro orphans, on a tract of 
5,000 acres of land, in the Forks of the Delaware, which he had purchased 
in 1741). 

  He called this tract Nazareth; known, also, its "The Barony," because, 
when this purchase was "released and confirmed by William Penn to his 
trusty friend, Sir John Fagg, for the sole use and behoof of his beloved 
daughter, Letitia Aubrey, it was done on the condition of the payment of 
one red rose, yearly, if demanded, in full for all services, customs, and 
rents; with the privilege of holding thereon court baron, and views of 
frank pledge for the conservation of the peace." 

 It was on May 30th, in the year aforesaid, that this small band of hardy 
mechanics, under the leadership of Peter Boehler(2) reached the spot 
designated; and, as the shades of night closed upon them, they met for 
their evening worship under the wide spread branches of a primitive oak, 
which stood but a short distance from Captain Johns Indian village.(3) Before 
the expiration of six months, two log houses (one of which is still 
standing-the other was removed more than twenty years ago), and the lower 
portion of the walls of the large edifice, were completed.

   In consequence of some difficulty which now arose, nothing more was done 
until 1743, when Whitefield sold this estate to the Moravians, who then 
finished the main building, which has since that time been known as 
"Ephrata," or "The Whitefield House.4 "

  Here, then, was the first of that cordon of Moravian settlements 
gradually made during the next twenty years in this section of the country. 
In several cases, nothing is left of the original structures, but the 
localities of all are still known by their names. 

  Taking Ephrata as our starting point, we find old Nazareth a few hundred 
rods to the south, commenced in 1744; but whose quaint looking houses have 
all been removed. One mile westward, was Gnadenthal, whose spacious 
buildings, erected in 1745, gave way to those of the Courity Almshouse, 
which was located here in 1835.

 A short distance south of this spot is Christianspring, laid out in 1748, 
and where we still find several of the first dwellings. About a mile to the 
east of Ephrata is Friedensthal, on the Lehietan (Bushkill), whose first 
mill, built in 1750, supplied the neighboring inhabitants with the best of 
flour. 

  The Rose Settlement, containing the first Inn, or House of Entertainment, 
was begun in 1752, on the Kings road, about a mile to the northeast. 
"Standing on the very confines of barbarism, like a beacon off some dark 
and stormy coast, its cheering presence was henceforth hailed by horsemen 
and packers journeying on the Kings road, that led past and over the Blue 
Mountain, many miles northward, to the farms and settlements that dotted 
both shores of the Delaware in the Minisinks." This ancient hostelry was 
demolished in 1858.

  The pretty hamlet of Schoeneck, commenced in 1761, is to the north, 
almost within calling; and its old stone church, built in 1793, is still, 
fortunately, cherished by those whose ancestors delighted to worship within 
its massive walls.

  The present town of Nazareth, embracing Ephrata and Old Nazareth within 
its limits, was laid out on six hundred acres of the original tract, in 1771.

  The corner-stone of Nazareth Hall was laid in 1755,and the building was 
brought under roof within five months. Originally intended for the manor 
house, it was, however, never occupied by Count Zinzendorf, whose return 
from Germany did not take place, as death ended his useful career in 1760.

  The ground floor of this building was used as a place of worship, until 
the erection of the first church, in 1841; and its other roomy apartments 
have been devoted to school purposes, from 1759 to the present day.5

  The first graveyard was located, in 1753, on the highest point of the 
ridge, running westward, and more than a mile from Ephrata. It was used for 
only some ten or twelve years, and was gradually lost and forgotten amid 
the forest trees which surrounded it. 

 In 1870, the Moravian Historical Society erected a plain marble shaft, on 
a mound in the centre of the enclosure, and we find inscribed on it the 
names of more than sixty persons, of various nationalites, whose mortal 
remains were buried here. 

  In 1756, the present place of burial was set apart, on the brow of the 
hill, just west of the hall. It has been enlarged several times, and is now 
within the limits of The Evergreen Cemetery.
___________________________________________________________________________

1. Captain Zinzendorf was born in Dresden, May 17th, he received a most 
liberal education and finished his collegiate course, in the University 
at Wittemberg. For some years he held in important position in the 
government of Saxony, which he, however cheerfully resigned, in order 
to devote all his time, talents, and influence, to the service of God. 
He became the patron of the Moravians, who settled on one his estates, 
in Lusatia. He entered the regular ministry of their church, and was 
consecrated bishop in 1737. His subsequent life was one of constant 
activity in planning and carrying out various projects for the 
evangelization of the heathen in different parts of the world. In 1739 
he visited the Moravian missions in the West Indies, and subsequently 
made extensive journeyings ,among the Indiana in Pennsylvania and New 
York. His truly eventful life closed in 1760, and his remains repose in 
the centre of the graveyard at Herrnhut

2. This truly great man was born in Frankfort-on-the-Main. 
December 3lst, 1712. He was intended by his fattier for the medical 
profession, but entered the University of Jena as a divinity student, when 
in his eighteenth year. Here he made the acquaintance of some Moravians 
whose communion he joined; and, in 1737,, he was sent to missionate among 
the negro slaves on the Plantations near Savannah Georgia. Three years 
later, he proceeded to Pennsylvania, and this province became the principal 
fleld of his future activity. He visited Europe several times, and died in 
London, in April, 1755. John Wesley, the Methodist revivalist, calls Peter 
Boehler his spiritual father.- (See Life of Wesley, &c.,)

3. Captain John, a Delaware, was a son of old Captain Harris, and a 
half-brother to Tadeuskund, King of the Delawares in 1756. A populous 
village of this tribe, under the jurisdiction of Captain John, occupied the 
later site of old Nazareth, in 1740. For a time, this "shrewd old 
Ishmalite" refused to give the Moravians full possession of the land just 
purchased by them. He died in 1747, and, in accordance with his dying 
request, was buried after the Christian mode of burial.

4.This building was originally intended by Whitefield for a school or 
asylum for orphan negro children. Having passed out of his hands, it became 
as well  remarked, "the cradle of Moravianism in America." The old house 
has undergone many changes, and been used for many purposes. For a number 
of years it was set apart as a nursery for infant children between two and 
three years of age, thus to enable their parents "the better to labor for 
the common good of the community." This Institution was abolished about 
1760, and, thenceforward, the Ephrata House was occupied by families for a 
long period and in later years (1856) it was used, also, for educational 
purposes. In 1871 the building was completely renovated, and altered in its 
interior arrangements. Since that date, it has been set apart as a 
temporary retreat for disabled missionaries and ministers, of the Church, 
and is now called "The Missionary Home." The Moravian Historical society 
occupies the second floor for its library and museum.

5. In 1785, the hall was surmounted with a belfry, bull, and vane. The 
hollow ball contains a document giving a short historical amount of the 
origin of the neighboring settlements." In 1796, a terrace was constructed 
on the roof, and the belfry now received a clock, the workmanship of Mr. 
Joseph Eberman, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, which, for nearly fifty years, 
did goodly service in that spot.  The old bell, with its devout 
inscription, "Deo soli gloria" (To God alone be the glory) still rings 
where it rang at first; but the clock was removed into the tower of the new 
church, in 1841, where a large, mellow-toned bell awaited it; but in 1861, 
both bell and clock were placed in the spire of the beautiful brick 
sanctuary, whence we hear the hours of the day, and their quarters, 
proclaimed, year in, year out.


221

                          THE EVERGREEN CEMETERY.

  Whose choice collection of spruce, pine, hemlock, and other suitable 
trees, makes it a most appropriate spot for interment.

  In the latter part of 1771, the first inn was built, on the very site of 
the present.
  

                              NAZARETH HOTEL.

  A contemporary writer describes it as having been "a rather murky-looking 
tenement;" but, in course of time, it was improved, enlarged, and 
ultimately renovated; and now appears with all the appointments of modern 
hotel aspirations. 

  During the next year, a store was opened in a two-story stone house on 
the east side of the square, in whose centre there was now placed a 
convenient pump for public use. This received its supply of water through 
pipes from a spring which still sends forth its never-failing stream, a 
short distance northwest of the hall. The waters from several contiguous 
spring, were, in time, led into this main pipe; and thus was the town 
supplied for nearly a century.

 In 1859, a reservoir (since enlarged), was built, just west of the 
cemetery, and the waters of Johns Spring. Some distance beyond, brought 
into it, iron pipes distribute the supply through the greater part of the 
town. The present WATER COMPANY was chartered in 1870.


                               MARKET HOUSE.

  A public, market house was built in the square about 1780, and was in use 
until the hand of modern improvement demolished it in 1857.

                               FIRE-ENGINES.

  Two hand fire-engines, were introduced; the first about 1790, and the 
second about 1820. At different times, as many various fire organizations 
existed, but at present there is no fire company. Both engines are still on 
hand, and also a large supply of hose, for attachment to the fire plugs 
connected with the pipes leading from the reservoir. Fortunately, but few 
fires have ever occurred.

  After the war for American Independence, when our National Government was 
established, a POST OFFICE.


                               POST OFFICE

  Was soon opened in Nazareth, which now became the centre of post roads 
and travel from New York and Philadelphia to the northern parts, of 
Pennsylvania. The arrival and departure of the mail stage caused no little 
stir to the quiet community, and especially so during the times of the 
"Troy coaches and four" (still within the memory of the living), when the 
postillion's here announced, already from afar, the approach of travelers, 
whose advent at the old inn was always an hour full of strange 
expectations. But this has all been changed by the railroad facilities 
around us, though we still have a ride of five miles to the nearest depot.


                         GERMAN NEWSPAPER, ETC.

  Between the years 1835 and 1838, a weekly German paper, Die Abend Zeitung 
(the Evening Paper), was published at Nazareth, but the office was 
afterwards removed to Easton, and there combined with some other paper.

  All the various handicrafts which necessity and comfort call for were 
gradually introduced; and though building operations were never very rapid, 
yet house after house was erected, and these mostly of a plain and 
substantial style.


                            THE LIMESTONE QUARRIES.

  Opened for the construction of the Whitefield House, are still in use, 
and supply quantities of material for building and other purposes Of late 
years, thousands of tons of this stone have been burnt into lime (in large 
kilns, near the town), and mostly used by farmers to our north, who find it 
a valuable fertilizer; and since its introduction, the scrub-oak was to have 
been converted into productive grain farms.

  As time sped on a change was taking place in the habits and customs of 
the exclusively Moravian community of Nazareth, and it was by and by 
decided to abrogate the rules of the past, and to take a more liberal view 
of the sentiments of the world around. Hence in 1849 THE LEASE SYSTEM
was abolished by the Church authorities, met in General Synod (Clergy and 
Lay men) at Bethlehem; and soon after the town plan of Nazareth was 
enlarged, property was offered to the highest bidders, and an impetus thus 
given to business in general, which resulted in the erection of a number of 
well-built brick dwellings, on several of the new streets just opened.


                            CHURCH EDIFICES.

  The Moravian Church of 1841, was, now converted into a Parochial 
schoolhouse, and the present beautiful church building erected, in 1861, on 
the west side of Centre Square. The Lutheran and Reformed congregations, 
built St. Johns Church in 1859, on South Broad, corner of Prospect, street, 
and in 1867 the German Evangelical Association put up a place of worship at 
the corner of Broad and Walnut street. Two additional PUBLIC HOUSES
were opened-the American Hotel in 1853, and the Franklin House, in 1860.


                           THE FAIR GROUND.

  Of the Northampton County Agricultural Society, was laid out in 1854, in 
the southern part of the town, between Main and Broad streets.


                       FREE SCHOOL HOUSES ETC.

  A school house was built, in 1868, at the corner of North Broad and 
Chestnut Sts., in connection with which a building of smaller dimensions 
near by, is devoted to school purposes. As education, in its true and most 
thorough sense, always field a prominent place among the leading principles 
of the Moravian Church, schools for boys and for girls, and also for 
infants, were early established here, as elsewhere, and they have been 
maintained unto the present day. Musical talent, so natural among Germans, 
has also been well cultivated, and literary societies are not wanting. A 
Philharmonic Society, a Cornet Band and a Young Mens Lyceum, have, for many 
decades afforded opportunities for pleasant and useful recreation.

  In 1857 the Moravian Historical Society was instituted, and its, library 
and museum of antiquities, occupy the second floor ofthe Whitefield House 
Sunday-schools and other religious association, are connected with all the 
churches, the oldest and most important of which are the Missionary 
Societies of the Moravians. 

  A museum of Indian relies and other curiosities, was opened by a private 
individual in 1869, whose cabinet contains one of the largest and most 
valuable collection of birds eggs and nests to be met with. The 
enthusiastic owner has spent full fifty years in making this collection.

  As already stated Nazareth has been a post-town for nearly a century. 
There are daily mails and stage and express facilities to all parts of the 
country. With regard to the military record of the borough, during the 
late. War of the Rebellion, it is but just to state that at the first call 
for troops, the young men were not slow in offering their services. The 
first company regularly organized, was Company A, 153d Regiment, Pa. Vols., 
the record of , which at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, is well known.


                       INCORPORATED A BOROUGH.

  April 14th, 1863. All of the usual professions and trades of a provincial  
town are represented in the village, and from the appended list, it will be 
seen that our population, of about 1,000, are well served in this respect. 
The three churches have comfortable parsonages for their presences.

  There are seven buildings in the borough used for school purposes, and 
some twenty teachers are, employed. We have four physicians; strange to 
say, no lawyer has ever opened all office in the town, though it has 
unfortunately not been free from litigation
one apothecary
two druggists
one veterinary surgeon
three dry goods, grocery, and notion stores
two hardware stores
one iron foundry
one machine-shop, for agricultural implements
one sash factory and planing-mill
one baker and confectioner
two floor still feed stores
two hoteliers
four tailors
seven shoemakers
one hatter and dealer in furs
one tobacconist
one undertaker
two lumber yards
two cabinet makers
two carriage, factories
one wheelwright
one stone cotter
four house carpenters and painters
one carpet and coverlet weaver
one photographer
two harness makers
one paint works
one cigar-box maker
three hotels, three restaurants
two brick yards
one guitar factory
one nursery of fruit and shade trees
two barber shops
three tinsmiths and dealers in stoves
four milliners
four dressmakers
two life and fire insurance agencies
one telegraph (Western Union office)
one fire-engine house
one livery stable
one Gas Works for the Moravian Church)
two Justices of the peace, Burgess  and five Councilmen
one High Constable
one museum
one lyceum and reading-room

   This list of handicrafts shows that we have no idle community; and as 
nearly all of the houses are owned by their occupants, there is good proof 
that the efforts of all who were faithful and diligent in business, were 
crowned with a satisfactory success. By the practice of diligence and 
economy, have not only home-comforts been secured, but generous spirit of 
beneficence has, been cherished, and a ready and active part taken by the 
people of Nazareth, in the great charitable projects of the day.


222 


  The citizens, mostly of German descent, retain many of the staid and 
quiet habits of their ancestors, and have been content to pursue their 
various enjoyments with but few ambitious traits, to spur them on to more 
active, and lucrative businesses. While the German language still 
predominates in common conversation, the English is spoken by nearly every 
one, and, is gradually becoming more general in its use.

  The town itself, noted for its healthy position, has a natural drainage, 
is well supplied with pure water, has graded streets and good sidewalks, 
street lamps, public hydrants and fire-plugs, and other necessary and 
convenient appointments. 

  The houses, are mostly of stone and brick; plain, well-built, and roomy 
without any pretensions to architectural beauty. The principal 
thoroughfares run north and south, and are crossed by others at right 
angles, all duly named. 

 Situated near the centre of the county, with a, rather confined local 
trade. Nazareth cannot think of competing in business with the large towns, 
but a few miles distant, which possess canal and railroad advantages, and 
in which extensive iron works, foundries, forges, rolling-mills, etc., are 
located. But should the day come, which perhaps is not far off when a long 
contemplated railroad, to pass the town in a northeasterly course, will be 
built, then, no doubt, the development of our rich natural products will 
become lucrative, and a fair portion of traffic and encouragement in our 
midst.


  THE NAZARETH COUNTY No. 1, ORDER OF UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS,
was instituted in 1849 It contains some sixty members. The
MANITOBA TRIBE, No. 125, IMPROVED ORDER OF RED MEN, was established in 1870.

  The most prominent as well as the most interesting feature of the borough 
of Nazareth, is the venerable institution of learning, known as NAZARETH HALL



                  PICTURE OF NAZARETH HALL APPEARS HERE



  In 1740, George Whitefield, then in the zenith of his activity it, the 
British Provinces of North America, purchased of Mr. William Allen of 
Philadelphia, 5,000 acres of land, in the Forks of the Delaware, which he 
named Nazareth. Here he projected a school for negroes, and here he 
designed settling such of his adherents in England as, might be compelled 
to leave, their country for conscience sake. His plans, however, were never 
consummate. The school-building-at the present day, called the Whitefield 
House-was only in course, of erection, when, in 1741, the death of 
Whitefield's financial agent compelled him to relinquish his noble 
enterprise. Becoming pecuniarily embarrassed, he threw his estate in 
Pennsylvania on the market, and in the summer of the above mentioned year, 
it was purchased by Bishop Spangenberg, then in London, for the Moravian 
Church.

  On this historic tract, Nazareth Hall was commenced in May, 1755, but 
was not completed until in the summer of 1758; a delay, which was 
unavoidable, in times troublous, for the borders of the Province, us were 
those which succeed Braddock's disastrous campaign. 

  It is built of the limestone of the neighborhood, is eighty feet long by 
forty broad, three stories, high, and has a broken or gambrel roof, which 
is surmounted by a balustered terrace and a belfry.

  Nazareth Hall is in imposing structure, and even now challenges admiration 
for the chasteness of its design, and the justness of its proportions.

  Count Zinzendorf, for whom the hall had been built, failing to revisit 
this country, in June of 1759, it was converted into a boarding-school for 
Moravian lads exclusively, In December of 1764, there were as many as one
hundred and six pupils in charge of sixteen tutors and twelve assistants, 
in the building. In May of 1737, a Provincial Synod of the Church held its
sessions in the chapel of the Hall, and in the summer of the same year,
Bishop Spangenberg, who for nearly twenty years superintended the Moravian 
movement in North America, occupied a suite of its apartments. 

  The Hall and the four buildings (including the Principals residence) now 
belonging to the Institution, front on a pleasant lawn, and are distant 
from the main street and business portion of the borough.
In the rear ties the farm, containing some forty acres.

  The valuation of these estates and properties, including furniture, 
stock, equipments, etc, may not be far from $50,000. There have been 
fourteen principals, the first of whom, was:

                 REV. CHARLES G. REICHEL, 1785-1802

  Mr. Reichel, a graduate of the Moravian Theological Seminary at Barby, 
Saxony, came to this country in the autumn of 1784, to take charge of the 
then recently planned Boarding School at Nazareth. On the third of 
October, 1785, the day on which it was opened, be assumed the duties of 
presiding officer. There were but eleven pupils entered on that day, and 
these were sons of members of the Moravian Church. 

  Joseph Shaw, of Philadelphia, was the first but not of Moravian parentage 
admitted.

  In 1787, John Konkaput, a Housatonic Indian, from Stockbridge, Mass., was 
placed at the Institution by the United States Government. Accessions of 
pupils from the West Indies, date from the year 1788; and, from that time, 
there was scarcely a year but that sons of English and Danish planters from 
these islands were inmates of the Hall.

  During Mr. Reichel's administration, one hundred and sixty-three pupils 
were connected with the Institution.

  Special attention was paid to the study of the English and German 
languages, the pupils being required to express themselves exclusively in 
the one or the other, on alternate days, in their intercourse with each 
other and their preceptors. The first examination of classes open to the 
public, was held in October of 1789.

  In August of 1786, fifty-five and a half perches of land lying west ofthe 
Hall, were laid out into a park. It was subsequently enlarged, planted with 
forest trees, shrubs and wild flowers, add thus became "the shades of the 
Academy," in which, successive generations of its inmate sought rest and 
recreation from mental toil.

  Mr. Reichel returned to Europe in 1818, and died at Nisky, Lower Silesia, 
in April of 1825.


223


                  REV. JACOB VAN VLECK, 1802-1809

  Mr. Van Vleck was a native of New York, and his parents members of the 
church which the Moravians organized in that city in 1748. After having 
pursued it collegiate course of instruction in the Hall, he, in 1771, went 
abroad, to prepare for the ministry at the Theological Seminary at Barby.
 
  Returning to his native country after a seven years absence, Mr. Van Vleck 
was ordained, and, in 1790, appointed Principal of the Young Ladies 
Seminary at Bethlehem, and in 1802, succeeded Mr. Reichel at Nazareth Hall.
One hundred and nineteen pupils, of which number but eighteen were 
Moravians, were admitted during his administration. As the sons of Moravian 
parents were now beginning to preponderate in the school, the German 
language, which had at first been used in destruction to a great extent, 
was supplanted by the English.

  It was found necessary also, to bring the curriculum more in conformity 
with that of other schools in the country.

  As, the school grew, great difficulty was experienced in procuring 
liberally educated preceptors.

  It was, therefore, resolved to make special provision for this pressing 
want, and, in 1807, a Collegiate and Divinity School was established at the 
Hall, in which young men of the Church were trained as preceptors while 
studying for the ministry.  This was the origin of the preteens Theological 
Seminary at Bethlehem. Since 1810 this Institution has supplied most of the 
teachers employed in Nazareth Hall.


                  REV. CHARLES F. SEIDEL 1809-1817.

  Mr. Seidel was a graduate of the Moravian Theological Seminary at Nisky; 
came to this country in 1806, and in 1809 took charge of the, Hall
The third of October, 1810, was the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
founding of the school The occasion was impressively observed; the chapel 
decorated; the pupils for the first tune occupied a common refectory; and a 
musical entertainment closed the festivities of the day.


                  REV. JOHN C. BECKLER, 1817-1822.

  During his administration there was erected a residence for the 
Principal, who, with his family had hitherto been domiciled in the Hall.


                   REV. WM. H. VAN VLECK, 1822-29.

  Mr. Van Vleck a son of the second Principal, was educated in the
logical Seminar at Nazareth, and discharged the duties of a tutor in the
Hall, prior to his entrance into the ministry. As a Principal he was 
successful, and the Institution entrusted to his care flourished as it had 
never done before. The number of pupils reached seventy-one.

  Subsequent to his retirement from the school, Mr. Van Vleck took charge 
of the Moravian Church in New York; was some time President of the 
Executive Board of the Province South; and, while senior pastor at 
Bethlehem, died in January of 1852.


                  REV. JOHN G. HERMAN, 1829-1837.

  The sixth Principal of the Hall was a graduate of the Theological 
Seminary at Nisky, came to this country in 1817, and after having labored 
in the ministry for twelve years, took charge of the Institution at Nazareth.

  His administration was eminently prosperous, the number of pupils 
eventually reaching seventy-three.

  The semi-centennial of the Institution was observed on the third of 
October 1835.

  Eight hundred and seventeen pupils were admitted during the first half 
century of the Institutions existence.
Two hundred and four were from Philadelphia
one hundred and seventeen from other points in Pennsylvania
one hundred and fifty-nine from the City and State of New York
fifty-three from Baltimore
eighty-two from the West India Islands
forty-one from Bethlehem
eighteen from Nazareth
fourteen from Litiz
twelve from Salem, N. C.
one hundred and nine from other States of the Union, Canada, and from abroad.

  In 1830, the refectory, which had hitherto been to the basement of the 
Hall, was transferred to a wing attached in the east end of the building.


                  REV. CHARLES A. VAN VLECK, 1837-1839.

  Mr. Van Vleck was a brother of the first Principal. He was a  graduate of 
the Theological Seminary at Nazareth. Died in Greenville, Tenn., in 
December, 1845.


                   REV. CHARLES F. KLUGE 1839-1844.

  Mr. Kluge was a graduate of the Theological Seminary at, Nazareth, and 
subsequently pastor of the Moravian Church in New York. During his 
administration at the Hall, the Trustees of the Institution purchased the 
building from the congregation who had been holding services in the lower 
part of the Hall, that having been conveyed to them in 1771, when the 
division of a portion of the unity estates in this country was effected. It 
was furnished as a chapel, additions made for refectory and kitchen, and 
the pupils boarded by the Institution.

  Mr. Jacobson was educated in the Theological Seminary at Nisky, Came to 
this country in 1816, and for ten years was a tutor in the Hall. His first 
pastoral charge was in the Province South. For eleven years he presided 
over the Young Ladies Academy at Salem, leaving it to enter upon the duties 
of Principal at Nazareth Hall.

  One hundred and thirty-two pupils are registered for this administration, 
the number at one time reaching seventy.


               REV. LEVI T. REICHEL, 1849-1853.

  Mr. Reichel, a son of the first Principal, was born at Bethlehem and 
educated for the ministry abroad. In 1834 he entered the Hall as it tutor, 
and in 1837 was called to a charge in the neighborhood of Nazareth.
During this administration the arrangements in the school underwent a 
change the course of study was modified, the use of the German language in 
the daily intercourse of the pupils was reintroduced, and day-scholars were 
no longer admitted.


                 REV. EDWARD RONDTHALER, 1853-54,

  Was born at Nazareth and educated in the Theological Seminary at that 
place, From the Hall, in which he labored as tutor for six years, he was, 
in 1841, called to the charge of a congregation in the neighborhood. 
Subsequently he was settled at Graceham, Frederick county, Md., and in 
Philadelphia.
 
  On severing his connection with the Institution in whose interests he 
wrought zealously, Mr. Ronthaler was appointed Professor in the Theological 
Seminary, at that time temporarily located at Nazareth. There he died, in 
March of 1865.


             REV. EDWARD H. REICHEL 1854-1866,

  A grandson of the first Principal of Nazareth Hall, was graduated frown 
the Theological Seminary at Bethlehem, served as a tutor in the first-named 
Institution, and in 1849 was settled in the ministry at Camden Valley, 
Washington County, N. Y.  From that church he was called to the Hall.

  The annual increase in the number of pupils calling for ampler 
accommodation, to the autumn of 1865 a three-story wing was added to the 
Hall. Thus the capacity of the school was permanently increased.

  In 1862, Mr, Reichel organized his pupils into a uniformed cadet company, 
and introduced military drill as part of the routine of physical culture.
During his incumbency, the Institution was relieved from financial 
embarrassments, under which it had labored much to its disadvantage for a 
number of years.

  Reunions were held annually as late as 1859. At the one of 
June 11th, 1858, a mural tablet, hearing the names ofthe twelve Principals 
of the Hall, (a tribute from former pupils) was inserted in the wall of 
the chapel. The reunion of 1866 was one of more than ordinary interest, 
calling forth the rehearsal of services rendered no their country in the 
time of her danger by patriotic Alumni of the school. Upward of six hundred 
pupils were admitted into the Hall during this administration.


                 REV. ROBERT DE SCHWEINITZ, 1866-1867.

  Graduated from the Theological Seminary at Bethlehem, and, after having 
been a tutor in the, Hall for six years, was settled successively in 
different pastorates. Between 18,53 and 1855, he was Principal of the Young 
Ladies, Seminary at Salem.

  He is now President of the Board of Trustees of Nazareth Hall.


224


                      REV. EUGENE LEIBERT, 1867.

Mr. Leibert was graduated from the Theological Seminary of the Moravian 
Church in l853, and entered the Hall as a tutor. Having been settled in the 
ministry successively at Sharon, Tuscarawas county, Ohio, and on Staten 
Island, he was in July of 1867 called to the Institution over which he has 
now presided for nine years.  During this period the capacity of the school 
has been greatly increased, and only lately a commodious four-story 
building near the Hall has been purchased in order to meet the wants of its 
growing patronage. The present number of pupils is one hundred and fifty.

  The ninth reunion of former pupils, marked by the inauguration of it 
memorial cenotaph in honor of such Alumni as fell in the defence of their 
country during the late civil war, was held June 11th, 1868.

  One hundred and thirty-three former inmates of the Hall, some of whom 
entered is early as 1788, were present on this interesting occasion,
Among the members of the Committee of Arrangements were

Andrew A. Humphreys, Major-General, U. S. A. (a pupil of the class of 1822) 

John Baille McIntosh, Brevet Major-General, U. S. A. (a pupil of 1837)

Nathaniel Michler, Brevet Brigadier-General, U. S. A, (a pupil of 1836) 

George P. Ihrie, Brevet Brigadier-General, U. S. A. (a pupil of 1836)

Major Giles Porter, U. S A.  (a pupil of 1840)

  The orator of the day was Rev. Edmund de Schweinitz, of Bethlehem, a 
pupil of 1834; and to General Humphreys, the senior officer present, was 
awarded the honor of unvailing the stone. It stands in the center of the 
green which spreads out before the flail. Its base is a block of granite, 
six and-a-half feet square. 

  On this rests the pedestal, consisting of slabs of Connecticut sand-
stone, supporting a solid block of New Brunswick drab-stone, into whose 
southern face is cut the National Cost of Arms, The pedestal is surmounted 
by a square the of Italian white marble, on which are inscribed appropriate 
legends and the names of the fallen Alumni. The obelisk itself is composed 
of1docks of Cleveland drab-stone alternating with slabs of Connecticut 
brown-stone. The south face of the marble bears the following
inscription:

 "To commemorate the memory or sons of Nazareth Hall, who died that their 
country might be healed and live, this stone, is erected by the Alumni of 
the institution in the year of grace, 1868."

On the east face are inscribed these names:

DAVID BAKER

VAN BRUNT M. BERGEN

HERMAN L. BEITEL

CHARLES M BERG

EUQENE FERD CLEWELL

GEORGE LORILLARD FREAM

DANIEL H. FASIG

JOSEPH P. BACHMAN

HORACE C. BENNET

And below, the comforting words of Scripture:

"They shall hunger no more; neither thirst any more; neither shall the sun 
light on them, nor any heat. For the lamb which is in the midst of them 
shall feed them, and shall lead them at living fountain of waters; and God 
shall wipe away all tests from their eyes."

The north side bears the names of

ASHER GAYLORD

JAMES T. GRAFTON

JOHN C. HAGEN

PLINY A. JEWETT, JR.

CLARENCE KAMPMANN

WILLIAM W. LADD

DAVID T. LATINIER

BENJAMIN F. LANDELL

FRANK POTT

And the legend,

  "The Academy is the nursing mother of patroits, rearing her children in 
the ways of truth and freedom."

On the west, face the record is completed with the names of

CHARLES RYERSON

EDMUND A SHOUSE

EDWIN A. KIRVING

CHARLES L. SMEIDLE

CHRISTIAN F. SMITH

CHARLES M. STOUT

ARTHUR L. VAN VLECK

JOHN A. WITMER

JOHN F. WOOD


  And underneath, the words of Plato:

  "Hence it, is, that the fathers of these men, and themselves too, being 
nurtured in all freedom and well-born, have shown before all men deeds many 
and glorious in public and private, deeming it their duty to fight for 
freedom and their country, even against their countrymen."

  The Military and Naval Record of the, Institution, furthermore, shows
that two hundred and six of its pupils entered the Army or Navy or the 
United States in the civil war, in addition to the twenty-eight who fell in 
battle, or died of disease contracted in the service.

  Upwards of 3,000 pupils, as has been stated, have been educated in part 
or entirely within the past ninety-one years, at this now venerable 
Institution of learning. Many of these are known to have risen to eminence 
in the various walks of life, and have been or are men of mark in the eyes 
of the world.

  Truly, it is an Institution of which gray old Nazareth may well he proud.
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